Archive for the 'Chemistry' Category

Oliver Twist

“Please, sir, I want some more.”, says poor young Oliver twist before he is sold for five pounds to work for an undertaker.

“Please, sir, I want some more.”, is a famous quote from a book we’ve all heard of called Oliver twist, by an author we’ve all heard of named Charles Dickens.  This book is about a boy named Oliver Twist, (as the title suggests, )Who Is abducted and used by a band of thieves led by a criminal named Fagin.  It is a very engaging book, filled with mystery, escape, murder, betrayal and other interesting themes.

This book takes place in England, which at that time was a very unjust society.  Many of the themes in the book have to do with injustice committed against the poor, good VS. evil, and mistaken identity.

Some of the main characters are : Oliver : Oliver Twist is an orphan who is particularly mistreated and beaten.  In one scene, he loses his temper and attacks Noah Claypole, who at the time is insulting Oliver’s mother.  The main mystery of the book is who Oliver’s mother is.

Nancy : She is one of Fagin’s gang of young pickpockets, only she still has a sense of morality left in her.  She risks (and eventually loses) her life for young Oliver.

Sikes : Sikes is another criminal in the book.  He is more cunning than Fagin, and even scares him.  When Sikes finds out that Nancy ratted him out to help Oliver, he kills her.  However, in the next chapter, he accidentally hangs himself (ironic, huh?).

The time that Dickens was writing about was an era when something called The Poor Law was in effect.  The poor law was a law that made every parish construct a workhouse (a house where the poor could learn valuable trades).  The only problem was, as demonstrated in the book, the people who ran the workhouses where mean, and they would steal from the poor and starve them (and often, they would horribly abuse them).

This book is a classic novel, and it uses the most beautiful form of language to protest injustice.  Add this to your summer reading list to travel back in time to accompany Oliver on his journey.

Molarity and pH

Molarity is simply just the concentration of H ions in an acid or base. So, say you have a concentration of 1×10^-7. The pH of that is 7.Pretty easy, eh. BUT DON’T FORGET!!!!! The pH scale only goes from 0 to 14! Oh! And I thought you might want to know: how do you get the pH of 7? Well, here’s the equation: pH = -log[1×10^-7]. The -log cancels out the – on the -7. So, your left with 7.

Covalent Bonding

Covalent bonding is when electrons are shared in the bond. A sigma bond is when an S orbital overlaps another.  When this happens, it is because the orbital is only half full. A pi bond is when two p orbitals go side by side.


Nanotechnology is understanding things under the size of 100 nm. What Nanotechnogy can be used for: a medicine, an elevator to space and a weapon. DNA is at nm scale.

The Electron Configuration

The Pauli principle says that an orbital can at most hold 2 electrons.  The Aufbau principle says the order  that  orabitas  fil up with electros.  the electron configuration tels you how meny electrons in each orbital.


An  orbital  is  another way of saying electron cloud,and an electron cloud is the space the electron takes up.        There are s, d, p, f, and g orbitals.  Orbitals are different because their shapes are different.

The Periodic Table

The periodic table is a list of all the atoms known. This is the man who invented the periodic table.  His name was Mendeleev.

The rows are called periods. On the first table made, he started with the lightest atoms and ended with the heaviest. Every atom in every column has similar chemical properties.